The Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape demonstrates the rise and fall of the first indigenous kingdom in Southern Africa between 900 and 1,300 AD. The core area covers nearly 30,000 ha and is supported by a suggested buffer zone of around 100,000 ha. The capital of the kingdom was called Mapungubwe, which is where the kingdom gets its name. The remains of this famous kingdom, when viewed against the present day fauna and flora, and the geo-morphological formations of the Limpopo/Shashe confluence, create an impressive cultural landscape of universal significance.
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Mapungubwean society was “the most complex in southern Africa”.

Kingdom of Mapungubwe – Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaThe Kingdom of Mapungubwe (1075-1220) was a pre-colonial state in Southern Africa located at the confluence of the Shashe and Limpopo rivers (), south of Great Zimbabwe. The kingdom was the first stage in a development that would culminate in the creation of the Kingdom of Zimbabwe in the 13th century, and with gold trading links to Rhapta and Kilwa Kisiwani on the African east coast.

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Life in Mapungubwe was centred around family and farming. Special sites were created for initiation ceremonies, household activities, and other social functions. Cattle lived in kraals located close to the residents’ houses, signifying their value.